Doctor of Philosophy - PhD Candidate
Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) 
Transformation of the architectural knowledge base through digitalization of architectural practice
expected graduation – 2024

NTNU - Prof. Eilif Hjelseth 
TU Wien - Univ. Prof. Dipl. Ing. Dr. Michael U. Hensel
Architectural building projects depend on the successful exchange of information and knowledge between various expert groups. Today this information exchange is supported by online digital technologies like Building Information Modelling (BIM), social methods like ICE (Integrated Concurrent Engineering) and frameworks like Virtual Design and Construction (VDC). In these environments, various groups of experts exchange their knowledge relating to the design, conceptualization, construction and operation phase of a building.
Drawing on Techno-Anthropological research perspectives, this PhD aims to explore the information exchange between various expert groups and identify the nature of the knowledge produced within online digital technologies and the effects VDC has on the architectural and engineering knowledge base.
Edited By Sina Moradi, Kalle Kahkonen, Lauri Koskela, Ole Jonny Klakegg, Kirsi Aaltonen
By Eilif Hjelseth, Kristine Slotina, Endre Sjøvold
A team member’s pattern of communication is the most important predictor of team performance. The large body of small-group research shows that different contexts require different group dynamics for high team performance. This study explores whether experienced project professionals are aware of the optimum meeting environment (in-person, virtual or hybrid) when coordinating, cooperating, or collaborating to solve tasks. The digital transformation enables new ways to organise in-person, virtual, and hybrid meetings. We chose to investigate a specific kind of meeting called Integrated Concurrent Engineering (ICE) sessions. ICE-sessions are highly structured, strongly supported by technology and ambition for high efficiency, being both a means for effective collaboration and a means to solve complex problems. We gathered data using a questionnaire designed for the purpose of a standardised Systematize Person-Group Relation (SPGR) scale. As a strong structure invites a simple dynamic with less opposition, we studied if ICE-session members show sufficient awareness and opposition to identify and change when a shift to a more complex dynamic is mandatory. Our findings suggest that they do not. A framework has been developed to identify the relationship between “Awareness” and “Ability to act”.
DARe 2023 - "Digital Architectural Research"
DARe 2023 conference took place in Bialystok, Poland from 1st to 3rd  of March 2023.
Exploring architects’ perspective on the digital world using PPT framework
authors: Slotina, Kristine, Hjelseth, Eilif

Architects’ position is altered due to the emerging digital frameworks, processes and technologies in the Architecture Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry.
Architects communicate and collaborate by using language of design (Schön, 1983). Nowadays this communication is often expressed through BIM-based tools. These tools together with emerging digital frameworks like Virtual Design and Construction (VDC) impact the interdisciplinary collaboration and knowledge transfer in the AEC industry (Slotina, 2021). Although architects have an important role in the AEC industry, their representation in VDC-courses in Norway over the last three years was around 3%. This raises the question whether architects are aware of how digital frameworks are affecting the interdisciplinary way they collaborate? And are digital frameworks like VDC supporting the way architects conceptualize design?
This study uses semi-structured interviews with seven architects to look at the architect’s self-perception on the way they are conceptualizing design. The interviews are analysed using People, Process and Technology (PPT) framework based on Owen (2013). The analysis of PPT shows that technology dominates in relation to architects’ way of conceptualizing design in the VDC framework.
For the digital frameworks to improve the collaboration for architects in interdisciplinary teams, it should take into the consideration the processes architects go through when they conceptualize design. Digitalization processes like Building Information Modelling (BIM) changes the way architects conceptualize and design buildings (Abdelhameed (2006), Hermund (2009), Shen et al. (2010)). This causes distress as the design issues are being solved “on the spot” (Slotina, 2021).
Architects’ awareness of digital frameworks like VDC affects how architects can contribute to the development of those frameworks. This research shows how architects can improve the balance of people, process, and technology in new emerging digital frameworks.

Keywords: Virtual Design and Construction (VDC); PPT - People, Process and Technology; Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) Industry; BIM – Building Information Modelling; Digitalization Processes; Interdisciplinary Collaboration
eCAADe 2021 - "Towards a new, configurable architecture"
eCAADe 2021 conference took place in Novi Sad, Serbia from 8th to 10th  of September 2021.

idecaade: 2021_215
authors: Slotina, Kristine, Hensel, Michael U. and Hjelseth, Eilif
In the architecture, engineering and construction industry (AEC) the transfer of knowledge and information through sharing, cooperation and collaboration serves to manage the inherent complexity of projects. Inter- and transdisciplinary teams including architects, engineers, consultants, contractors, suppliers and building owners, require shared design processes and understanding. Virtual Design and Construction (VDC) is part of how architectural information and knowledge is transferred through integrated processes. As part of an ongoing research this conference paper employs a Techno-Anthropological perspective to map existing research on the subject, to identify research gaps and to suggest further research. Given the ongoing changes the AEC industry is undergoing, we believe that Techno-Anthropology can contribute to systematic analysis and understanding of human-technology interactions. This research examines how VDC impacts upon the output of processes and how it affects the way interdisciplinary teams in AEC industry conceptualize and configure outputs.
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